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Perca fluviatilis  Linnaeus, 1758

European perch
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Native range
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Perca fluviatilis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Perca fluviatilis (European perch)
Perca fluviatilis
Picture by McDowall, R.M.


Australia country information

Common names: English perch, European perch, Reddie
Occurrence: introduced
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: commercial | Ref: FAO, 1997
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Known from MacIntyre River drainage, N.S.W. to Avon River drainage (Ref. 7300). Recorded from Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia (Ref. 44894). Feed selectively on small endemic fishes and fish fry and may have affected the numbers of galaxiids, pygmy perch, Nannoperca australis, and the golden perch, Macquaria ambigua in southern rivers (Ref. 12257). Common where there is abundant aquatic vegetation. A predatory species, juveniles feed on zooplankton, bottom invertebrate fauna and other perch fry while adults feed on both invertebrates and fish, mainly stickle-backs, perch, roach and minnows. The dietary preferences have created fears among conservationists who believed this species adversely affects stocks of native fishes including Murray cod, Macquarie perch, pygmy perches and rainbow fishes. The egg mass is unpalatable to other fish and is therefore protected. The eggs hatch in 1-3 weeks and the young form schools for some time before taking up a solitary existence (Ref. 44894). Used to be cultured commercially in Australia (Ref. 7306). Also Ref. 1739.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Allen, G.R., S.H. Midgley and M. Allen, 2002
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 4.8 kg (Ref. 2058); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 796)

Length at first maturity
Lm 16.8, range 11 - 23.4 cm

Environment

Freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9988), usually 3 - 4 m (Ref. 55947)

Climate / Range

Temperate; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 74°N - 38°N, 91°W - 168°E

Distribution

Eurasia: throughout Europe to northernmost extremity of Scandinavia, except Iberian Peninsula, central Italy, and Adriatic basin; Aegean Sea basin in Matriza and from Struma to Aliakmon drainages; Aral Sea basin; Siberia in rivers draining the Arctic Ocean eastward to Kolyma. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 14 - 20; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-16; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 7 - 10; Vertebrae: 39 - 42. Diagnosed from other species of Percidae in Europe by having the following unique characters: pelvic and anal fins yellow to red; posterior part of first dorsal fin with dark blotch; and flank with 5-8 bold dark bars, usually Y-shaped. Differs further by the combination of the following features: two dorsal fins, clearly separated from each other; and 56-77 scales along lateral line (Ref. 59043). Body greenish-yellow; 5-9 transverse black bands on the sides; first dorsal fin gray, black spot at the tip; second dorsal greenish-yellow; pectorals yellow; other fins red. First dorsal fin markedly higher than the second. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 2058).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits a very wide range of habitats from estuarine lagoons, lakes of all types to medium-sized streams. Feeding larvae occur in open water. This is an opportunistic diurnal feeder which preys mainly during sunrise and sunset, using all available prey. Larvae and small juveniles usually feed on planktonic invertebrates. During first summer, many juveniles move near shores to feed on benthic prey. Often feeds on fishes at about 12 cm SL. May undertake short spawning migrations. Males attain first sexual maturity at 1-2 years and females at 2-4 years of age. Spawns in February-July (Ref. 59043). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Its flesh is excellent and not so bony. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9988). May be captured with natural or artificial bait (Ref. 30578).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Potential pest



Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes

Tools

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.6250 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.1-0.4; tm=2-4; tmax=22; Fecundity=13,000)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown