Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 58302), usually 0 - 2 m (Ref. 58302)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred ?; 43°N - 24°S
Indian Ocean: tip of South Africa eastward to Indian and Sri Lanka, including the Red Sea, Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius. Western Pacific: Hokkaido to tropical Australia (as far south as Perth in the west and Sydney in the east), including Taiwan, Philippines, Moluccas, southern Papua New Guinea, Guam, Tonga, New Caledonia and New Zealand; Mariana Islands in Micronesia (Ref. 1602). Occurrence in the eastern Pacific remains problematic. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Western Atlantic: Gulf of Maine to the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, Uruguay. Eastern Atlantic: Azores and off West Africa; record from Vardø, northern Norway (Düben & Koren 1846) is based on a straggler taken northward by the North Atlantic and Norwegian currents.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 6 - 13. Diagnosis: body short and globose; mouth large with many small, villiform teeth; skin naked, but head, body and fins covered with numerous skin flaps; very long pelvic fins (> 25% SL); unprotected illicium or lure attains less than half of second dorsal-fin spine and 4.5-9.3% of SL (Ref. 57225).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.9 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000)
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)