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Carassius auratus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Goldfish
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Carassius auratus
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Australia country information

Common names: Carp, Crucian carp, Golden carp
Occurrence: introduced
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: common (usually seen) | Ref: Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993
Importance: commercial | Ref: Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993
Aquaculture: commercial | Ref: Arthington, A.H. and F. McKenzie, 1997
Regulations: no regulations | Ref: Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993
Uses: no uses
Comments: Introduced to freshwaters of the southern half of Australia, approximately from Brisbane, Queensland to Perth, Western Australia (Ref. 7300). Introduced individuals were instrumental in the entry of the goldfish ulcer disease which has recently spread rapidly to wild stocks (Ref. 12257). Commercial fishery: In the rivers of New South Wales and the Murray River in South Australia, goldfish are taken in drum nets. In Lake Albert and Lake Alexandrina in South Australia fishers use gillnets and electro-fishing gear. Goldfish are not useful as food and are of little commercial value (Ref. 2906). They are taken as a bycatch of the European carp catch, and probably sold for rock lobster bait. Resource status: Because goldfish are important in the aquarium trade there are no restrictions on their importation (except into Tasmania) and breeding. It is unfortunate that much of the spread of goldfish in Australia is a result of accidental liberations of pet fish from aquariums. Also Ref. 4766.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27549); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); max. reported age: 41 years (Ref. 72468)

Environment

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; ? - 41°C (Ref. 35682), preferred ?; 53°N - 22°N

Distribution

Asia: central Asia and China (Ref. 7050) and Japan (Ref. 6390). Introduced throughout the world. Asian form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-20; Anal spines: 2-3; Anal soft rays: 4 - 7; Vertebrae: 30. Body stout, thick-set, caudal peduncle thick and short (Ref. 1998). Head without scales (Ref. 39167, 1998), broadly triangular (Ref. 1998), interorbital space broad, snout longer than eye diameter, maxillary reaching posterior nostril or not quite to eye (Ref. 39166), barbels lacking on upper jaw (Ref. 39104, 1998). Lateral line complete. Dorsal and anal fins with serrate bony spines, pelvic fins short, broad and thoracic. Nuptial tubercles of male fine, on opercle, sometimes on back and a few on pectoral fins. Hybridize readily with carp, hybrids intermediate in most characteristics (Ref. 1998). Caudal fin with 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray osseous and serrated posteriorly; no barbels (Ref. 43281). Pigmentation: Wild-caught specimens, olive brown (Ref. 39168, 39104), slate olive, olive green, with a bronze sheen (Ref. 39104), silvery, grayish yellowish, gray-silver (Ref. 39169), through gold (often with black blotches) to creamy white (Ref. 1998); yellowish white or white below. Cultured forms vary through scarlet, red-pink, silver, brown, white, black and combinations of these colors (Ref. 39104).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258, 10294) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578). Occur in eutrophic waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Ref. 59043). Live better in cold water. Feed mainly on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus (Ref. 59043). Goldfish lay eggs on submerged vegetation. Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae. They last long in captivity (Ref. 7248). Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172, 39174). Used as an experimental species (Ref. 4537). Valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539). Reported individual hooked by an angler in a lake in Poole, Dorset measured 40 cm (16 in), weighing 2.3 kg (Practical Fishkeeping, 2010).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Potential pest



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: highly commercial; bait: occasionally

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5312 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
2.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17; tm=1; tmax=30)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Low vulnerability (24 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown