Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 333 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); max. published weight: 2.3 t (Ref. 47360)
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 30 - 480 m (Ref. 86942), usually 30 - 70 m (Ref. 90102)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 12°C - 25°C (Ref. 37040), preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 75°N - 65°S, 180°W - 180°E
Warm and temperate zones of all oceans. Eastern Pacific: British Columbia, Canada (Ref. 2850) to Peru and Chile (Ref. 5530). Western Pacific: Japan to Australia (Ref. 86345). Eastern Atlantic: Scandinavia to South Africa (occasionally western Baltic, Mediterranean). Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada (Ref. 7251) to Argentina (Ref. 36453).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 14 - 17. The scaleless body is covered with extremely thick, elastic skin. The caudal fin is replaced by a rudder-like structure called 'clavus'. Dorsal and anal fins very high with short base; in swimming, these fins are flapped synchronously from side to side and can propel the fish at surprisingly good speed. Pectorals small and rounded, directed upward (Ref. 6885). Mouth very small; teeth fused to form a parrot-like beak. Gills 4, a slit behind the last; gill openings reduced to a small hole at the base of the pectoral fins. Gas bladder absent in adults.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 13513)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.8125 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.7 ±0.47 se; Based on food items.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax = 8 (in captivity); Fec=300 million (batch fecundity))
Very high vulnerability (82 of 100)