Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); common length : 76.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816); max. published weight: 12.5 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref. 72420)
Length at first maturity
Lm 42.9, range 39 - ? cm
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 180 m (Ref. 37816), usually 10 - 70 m (Ref. 30573)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 31°N - 32°S, 31°E - 128°W (Ref. 55)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. More common around oceanic islands than in continental areas.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 8. Snout somewhat pointed. Dorsal profile of head rounded. Preorbital bone relatively broad; its width usually greater than eye diameter. A deep groove or pit runs from the nostrils to the front of the eye. Preopercular notch and knob moderately developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Young and some adults with two silvery-white spots on back. Large adults mostly plain red (Ref. 48635).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.33; tmax=13)
High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100)