Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3146); max. reported age: 34 years (Ref. 93525)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 35 m (Ref. 90102), usually 6 - 30 m (Ref. 58652)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115), preferred ?; 35°N - 30°S, 32°E - 130°W
Indo-Pacific: throughout the region excluding the Hawaiian, Marquesas and Easter islands. Record from Baker Island (US Minor Islands) based on a photograph (Ref. 42056). Absent from Malden and Jarvis islands (Ref. 1602).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 24 - 28. Body dark olive-brown. Orange spots on head. Pectoral fin yellowish, caudal and ventral fins brown, anterior part of caudal fin pale. Each side of caudal peduncle with sharp, forward-pointing erectile spine which folds down into a horizontal groove. Scales minute. Juveniles with 8 - 12 pale stipes inclining downward and backwards on body. Teeth movable, slender, tips incurved and expanded; upper jaw 5-6 denticulations, lower only 3-4. Gill rakers 27-36 in anterior row, 29-42 in posterior row.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9513)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5020 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Tmax = 34; K=0.87)
Low vulnerability (18 of 100)