Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 183 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 18.5 kg (Ref. 40637)
Length at first maturity
Lm 115.4, range 120 - ? cm
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 86942)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 9°N - 26°S
Indo-Pacific: possibly widespread from South Africa to Micronesia. Possible synonym of Himantura gerrardi. Frequently confused with Himantura jenkinsii (Ref. 9840).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Uniformly tan to brownish pink dorsally. Inhabits lagoon and seaward sand flats from the intertidal to at least 200 m. Occurs in large aggregations (Ref. 37816).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.7 ±0.57 se; Based on food items.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100)
High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100)