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Aetobatus narinari  (Euphrasen, 1790)

Spotted eagle ray
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Image of Aetobatus narinari (Spotted eagle ray)
Aetobatus narinari
Picture by Field, R.


Australia country information

Common names: Bonnet skate, Duckbill eagle-ray, Duckbill ray
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: minor commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: gamefish: yes;
Comments: Occurs in northern Australia, from Shark Bay in Western Australia to Sydney in New South Wales (Ref. 6871). Rarely eaten (Ref. 6871). Also Ref. 2334, 33390.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994
National Database:

Classification / Names

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Issue
The species Aetobatus laticeps Duméril, 1865 is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Mar. 2011: Ref. 86697) according to White et al. (2010: Ref. 84291) where it is questionably valid.

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 330 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048); common length : 180 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871); max. published weight: 230.0 kg (Ref. 7251)

Length at first maturity
Lm 99.8, range 110 - 120 cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually 1 - ? m (Ref. 55257)

Climate / Range

Subtropical, preferred ?

Distribution

Atlantic and Eastern Central Pacific.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 0. An eagleray with a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck's bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth (Ref. 5578). Each tooth a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band (Ref. 26938). Numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; white below (Ref. 5578). Long whiplike tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. No spines on disk (Ref. 7251).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Commonly found in shallow inshore waters such as bays and coral reefs but may cross oceanic basins (Ref. 9862). Benthopelagic, found near land at 1-60 m (Ref. 58302). Sometimes enters estuaries (Ref. 6871). Swims close to the surface, occasionally leaping out of the water, or close to the bottom (Ref. 3175). Frequently forming large schools during the non-breeding season (Ref. 7251). Feeds mainly on bivalves but also eats shrimps, crabs, octopus and worms, whelks, and small fishes (Ref. 9862). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Flesh edible (Ref. 30573). Over 3 m disc width and up to 880 cm total length if the long tail is undamaged (Ref. 30573). Bears young in litters of 2-4 (Ref.58048,Ref. 26938). Tail used as a decorative item (Ref. 27550). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl, inshore gillnet and, to a lesser extent, demersal longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat and cartilage (Ref.58048).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
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Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
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Internet sources

BHL | BOLDSystems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5625 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=4-6; Fec=4)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Medium