Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
The species Aetobatus laticeps Duméril, 1865 is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Mar. 2011: Ref. 86697) according to White et al. (2010: Ref. 84291) where it is questionably valid.
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 330 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048); common length : 180 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871); max. published weight: 230.0 kg (Ref. 7251)
Length at first maturity
Lm 99.8, range 110 - 120 cm
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually 1 - ? m (Ref. 55257)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred ?
soft rays: 0. An eagleray with a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck's bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth (Ref. 5578). Each tooth a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band (Ref. 26938). Numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; white below (Ref. 5578). Long whiplike tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. No spines on disk (Ref. 7251).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5625 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.2 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=4-6; Fec=4)
High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100)