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Sphyraena barracuda  (Edwards, 1771)

Great barracuda
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Image of Sphyraena barracuda (Great barracuda)
Sphyraena barracuda
Picture by Patzner, R.


Australia country information

Common names: Great barracuda, Striped seapike
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: minor commercial | Ref: Johannes, R.E. and J.W. MacFarlane, 1991
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Including the Torres Strait Islands (Ref. 13465). Also Ref. 1602, 38544.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae (Barracudas)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3692); max. published weight: 50.0 kg (Ref. 6949)

Length at first maturity
Lm 66.0, range 58 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 6949), usually 3 - 30 m (Ref. 40849)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 42°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55300)

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas and Tuamoto islands. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and throughout the Caribbean Sea to Brazil (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Nigeria, Senegal (Ref. 6949), Mauritania (Ref. 5377), St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), and São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 10. Distinguished by the double emarginate tail fin with pale tips on each lobe, and (usually) the presence of a few scattered black blotches on the lower sides (Ref. 1602). Top of head between eyes flat or concave; mouth large (Ref. 26938).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found predominantly at or near the surface (Ref. 6949, 48637). Juvenile occurs among mangroves, estuaries and shallow sheltered inner reef areas; adult occurs in a wide range of habitats from murky inner harbors to open seas. Diurnal and solitary, but can also be found in small aggregations. Feeds on fishes, cephalopods and sometimes on shrimps (Ref. 9626, 48637). Sold fresh. Utilized also dried or salted (Ref. 9987). Although this species is ciguatoxic elsewhere throughout its range, it has not been reported to be poisonous in the eastern Atlantic (Ref. 6949, 48637). Rarely attacks humans, usually with one quick, fierce strike, which, although serious, is rarely fatal. The world's record on hook and line is a 5.5-ft. fish taken in the Bahamas that weighed 103 lbs. (Ref. 13442).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums

More information

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.5   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.09-0.11; tm=2-4)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (79 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Medium