Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 240 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5765); common length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 70.0 kg (Ref. 5765)
Length at first maturity
Lm 85.0, range 55 - 82 cm
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 70 m (Ref. 12260)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 39°N - 41°S, 7°W - 180°E (Ref. 54880)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa to Southeast Asia, north to China and Japan and south to southeast Australia, and to Fiji (Ref. 6390). Immigrant to the eastern Mediterranean Sea by way of the Suez Canal. Southeast Atlantic: St. Helena.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
(total): 15 - 18;
soft rays: 16 - 21;
Vertebrae: 42 - 46. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Swim bladder absent. Lateral line abruptly bent downward below end of second dorsal fin. Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs. Vertical bars on trunk sometimes break up into spots ventrally which number 40-50 in adults, and less than 20 in juveniles. Juveniles with large oval dark spots on body; middle third of first dorsal fin white, rest of fin black (Ref. 11228).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 168)
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.5 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.21; tm=2-3; tmax=14; Fec=590,000)
Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100)