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Himantura polylepis  (Bleeker, 1852)

Freshwater whipray
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Himantura polylepis
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Australia country information

Common names: Baya gawiy, Biya, Biya
Occurrence: native
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Recorded from Gilbert River, Queensland; Daly and South Alligator rivers, Northern Territory; Ord and Pentacost rivers, Western Australia. Also Ref. 43281, 44894, 84364.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994
National Database:

Classification / Names

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 240 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27732); max. published weight: 600.0 kg (Ref. 6871)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 110 - ? cm

Environment

Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243)

Climate / Range

Tropical, preferred ?; 25°N - 20°S

Distribution

Asia and Oceania: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins; also from eastern Borneo, New Guinea and northern Australia.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0. Absence of ventral and dorsal skin folds on the tail, and the broad greyish to blackish marginal band on the ventral surface of the disc. The dorsal surface of the disc is brown (Ref. 27732). Spiral valve with 21 turns; dorsal surface with uniform brown or grey coloration (Ref. 12693). Lacking caudal fin; with long whip-like tail (Ref. 43281).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits sandy bottoms in estuaries and large rivers (Ref. 12693). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 12693) and fishes (Ref. 32457). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught occasionally by demersal gillnet and longline fisheries operating in riverine and estuarine areas. Utilized for its meat and possibly its cartilage (Ref.58048). Marketed fresh, with large individuals being sold in cut pieces by the kilogram (Ref. 12693). Size reaches to about 500 cm TL. Threatened due to over harvesting and pollution (Ref. 58490).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

  Endangered (EN) (A2bcd)

Threat to humans

  Venomous



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: experimental; aquarium: potential

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.5   ±0.37 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Low